C60 / Buckminsterfullerene: Side effects, toxicity?

People are understandably concerned about taking something that has only been discovered a few decades ago. Dr. Fathi Moussa, principal author of the C60 rat study is convinced C60 is non-toxic:

C60 in olive oil is anti-toxic: Lipofullerene C60 fully neutralizes lethal doses of certain toxic chemicals. Even better: Rats given a mere 24 doses of C60 oil lived 90% longer than the control group. Rats given otherwise lethal doses of an hepatotoxic chemical were fully protected by a prior single dose of C60 in olive oil. The photos of their healthy livers and the damaged livers of the rats that were not given C60 are in the study (PDF) on the left.

c60 toxicity

C60 liver protection

Vidcaps taken October 26, 2012. Source: C60.net. No restrictions applied at that time (post #13).
Dr. Moussa has no commerical interest in C60 and holds no C60 patents or C60-related shares.

Dr. Moussa has studied the effects of C60 on animals for 18 years when he made that statement. Some people hardly ever take any pills or supplements as a matter of principle, and I am one of those - with the exception of important medical treatment such as antibiotics, or supplements to help me recover from the flu. I believe in a healthy diet instead of eating food from depleted soils and supplementing with vitamins and minerals.

After having talked this through with my husband and doing weeks of intensive literature research into fullerene (esp. C60) toxicity, we both have decided to start taking C60 on a daily basis, perhaps for the rest of our lives. A no-brainer, since it will be cheap for us, because we own the so far only "serious" production line. "Serious", as in sterilized bottles, staff with gloves and face masks, and manufacturing procedures performed in a way that we don't have to be ashamed when the authorities come knocking. Please understand that we in no way are allowed to endorse this product for human use, neither are we allowed to make any claims as to its beneficial effects on human health. We can discuss the data in research papers though.

C60 (The chemical name for Buckminsterfullerene AKA "buckyballs") is neither a food supplement nor a medicine. It is a natural substance found in small quantities in chimney soot, candle smoke and wood ashes, and although the pharmaceutical industry has often professed a strong interest in this spherical molecule, nothing worth mentioning in that regard has come out of their production lines so far. Infitesimal quantities of C60 are added to certain astronomically priced skin creams and to be honest, we doubt that the price is worth it.

Pure C60 in olive oil is therefore a mixture of two substances found in nature. It is true that C60 can only be economically produced using industrial methods, but the same goes for vitamin C.

There have been quite a few studies done on fullerene toxicity, and what they found was:

- Unmodified C60 can't dissolve in water, only be suspended. C60-oil mixtures are non-toxic, but C60-water mixtures or hydroxylated C60 are more or less toxic, although the toxicity of C60 nanoparticles in water can be fully prevented by adding vitamin C:


This is a study claiming toxicity of aggregated (undissolved lumps of) C60, please note that aggregated C60 has nothing to do with oil-dissolved and oil-bound molecular C60 (lipofullerenes). Aggregated C60 are lumps of C60 that float around in a liquid, they are not dissolved C60 molecules at all, let alone bound to lipid molecules as they are in C60 in olive oil. So those studies that talk about C60 toxicity do not imply toxicity of C60 in oil, since that is a chemically totally different product.

Fullerene toxicity exist, but only occurs when fullerenes lump into nanoparticles or crystallize into larger structures. This happens in watery solutions of fullerenes but has been proven to be impossible with lipofullerenes (C60 in oil). The lipid chains attached to the C60 molecule prevent clumping or crystallization:

A lipofullerene of C60

Carbon nanotubes are suspected to have similar properties to asbestos fibers, and concern that some sources of C60 could theoretically contain traces of carbon nanotubes were alleviated by a study that found no traces of them in even the most impure commercial sources of C60.

Lipofullerenes are stable in the presence of water, so when you ingest C60 dissolved in oil it will never turn into C60 dissolved in water, since the affinity of the C60 molecule to lipids is very much higher than that to water.

- Some solvents used in fullerene purifcation are toxic, and have to be removed before producing any C60 consumables.

- C60 in oil (lipofullerene) is totally non-toxic and has shown "negative toxicity" (stronger growth and longer life) in several trials on lower as well as higher organisms. C60 dissolves in vegetable oils, although this takes a lot of stirring and patience, and not much of it dissolves. There have been quite a few studies done on oil-dissolved Buckminsterfullerene and none of them found any toxicity - on the contrary, it has a strong liver-protective effect, it protects against radioactivity (gamma radiation), a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health and lab rats lived nearly two years longer than the olive-oil only control group. That means that at least for rats, C60 in extra virgin olive oil has the highest "negative toxicity" of all substances known to man. Rats normally only live two, three years. And those C60 rats did not develop the tumors or pneumonia to which the control group eventually succumbed. Instead, the C60-in-oil rats simply died of the generalized deleterious effects of old age on their organ system. They hit in a way their "genetical maximum lifespan". This by itself would be a strong argument against any concerns of toxicity.

Additional studies confirm that C60 dissolved in oil is non-toxic. On the contrary, every study shows beneficial effects - whatever lifeform is used as a test subject: Fungi, small aquatic organisms, mice, rats. They live longer, are more resistant to age-related illness, the C60 has a liver-protective effect and brain function in old age is restored to the level of that of a young animal (mice study). C60 even prolongs the lifespan of mice with familial ALS and has a neuroprotective effect - not that we think that C60 will have any effect on any type of ALS - familial or sporadic. It does appear however, that C60 somehow performs a rejuvenating action somehow. There are many hypotheses as to what could be happening, and we will discuss those soon.

We initially thought that the centrifuging of the C60-oil solution in the rat study was done to make sure that no nano-particles of C60 ended up in the solution, but it turns out that not even centrifuging and micro-filtration can remove all of those. The good news is that toxicity trials show that C60 nanoparticles in oil are harmless. What the centrifuging and filtration does however, is to remove micro-particles. The filtration also removes all bacteria from the oil, since bacteria do not fit through a 0.22 micrometer hole. The rat study was a LD50 study, and the researchers wanted to avoid criticism oftheir methods, hence this meticulous preparation of the C60-olive oil solution, so that if toxicity would be found, that noone could claim that it could be due to microscopic C60 particles or even bacterial contamination, after two weeks of stirring.

More studies that show no C60-in-oil toxicity

Apart from the rat C60 LD50 study that turned into a rat C60 longevity discovery, there has been a Japanese study that found no toxicity of C60 dissolved in oil (corn oil this time):


More eleborate reports on all types of fullerene toxicity (or the absence of it) are here and here.

Vidcap taken October 26, 2012. Source: C60.net. No restrictions applied at that time (post #13).
Dr. Moussa has no commerical interest in C60 and holds no C60 patents or C60-related shares.

Normally, Wistar rats die of either pneumonia or tumors. The rats that took C60 in extra virgin olive oil lived nearly twice as long in good health. None of them developed tumors. They kept a normal healthy weight until shortly before they died of generalized organ failure. It is assumed that the rats in the study reached their Hayflick limit.

1.  bruce rappaport    Saturday, March 29, 2014

I use it dissolved in oil for the last 2 years. No problems so far. Just dip it in bread.

2.  Brenda Ingram    Monday, June 16, 2014

Can you tell me benefits you have seen with c60...i, myself, just started on it today.
Thanks, in advance.

3.  Kieser Sozay    Thursday, February 19, 2015

I'm 46 and after taking it I just went through puberty again. I think I better stop before I start soiling a diaper and need to breast feed.

4.  eagleram13    Tuesday, October 3, 2017

Can someone help with dosage suggestions of lipo C60?

5.  Sarah Vaughter    Tuesday, October 3, 2017

We have an entire page about it here:


6.  Roke Mafnas    Thursday, December 28, 2017

How soon do you notice results and are they permanent?Do results depend on sex and age?

7.  Sarah Vaughter    Thursday, December 28, 2017

I know that many of our compatitors make fals claims about all kinds of results and even our own customers say they notice all kinds of beneficial effects, but in my opinion, the only people who should notice anything are top athletes.

The only claim we make is that of the origina rat study: It is likely that aging will slow down and cancer will be prevented and that the liver will be protected against toxic chemicals. None of these effects are directly noticeable by feeling different in any way, shape or form.

8.  Zamiel    Friday, January 12, 2018

When you consume C60, can you also consume other Vitamins? Such as Multi Vitamin, consuming Zinc, Magnesium etc etc... consuming extra supplements; could this have a negative effect to C60 for it not to work its magic?

9.  Sarah Vaughter    Friday, January 12, 2018

The way C60 works is as an extremely stable molecule that can repeatedly accept as well as donate free electrons. It's an infinitely reusable universal antioxidant, as long as it remains in the lipid bilayers.

Chemically speaking, it is impossible for any other chemical in the body to degrade or bind to the C60 molecule. This means that C60 functions as universal antioxidant can not be impaired and the only issue to deal with is its gradual natural elimination from the body via mainly the feces, via regular replenishment.
You can consider C60 to be chemically inert, from a practical microbiological perspective. Its function is not chemical in the classical sense but limits itself to adding or removing electrons to/from other molecules, not binding with them or being modified/broken up by them. Chemical inertion implies that nothing can interfere with the molecule, chemically. So this means that ABSOLULETELY EVERY SUBSTANCE IMAGINABLE can be taken with C60 and it will not interfere with C60, and ABSOLUTELY EVERY SUBSTANCE IMAGINABLE can be taken with C60 and C60 will not interfere with it. This due to the utterly stable molecular structure of the geodesic buckyball, a structure more stable than diamond. These bonds are unmodifyable, unbreakable by substances in a human body. Atomic oxygen under high temperatures can degrade C60. But it would kill you first.

10.  jack    Thursday, November 8, 2018

I am a 48 year old man who still plays semi pro football. What benefits could I expect to notice in my body if I start taking c60.

11.  Sarah Vaughter    Thursday, November 8, 2018

Absolutely no benefits whatsoever, because a slowing-down of aging and a not-getting-cancer, as well as a liver-protecting effect against hepatotoxic chemicals all can't possibly "feel" like anything. If any other vendor of C60 lied to you and told you you'll be cured of whatever ails you and that you'll become a younger version of yourself etc., well, they're lying.

The only people who reported strong benefits are absolute top athletes. People who compete at the top of their field. I do not know whether that is a Placebo effect or not, but their doctors and they themselves are major customers of ours and some athletes claim they won medals because of our product. To be honest - I am skeptical.

12.  Annie    Saturday, March 2, 2019

Hi Sarah

Does the C60 separate from the oil once in the body? Surely they are not forever joined? Once separated, does it become a water fullerene (bec the body is mostly water) which is toxic? Or worse, does it clump together in the brain? Noting that carbon is harder than diamonds, clusters of hard, electro-conductive particles in the brain must devastate a human brain. Very keen to take this but worried about the factors no-one is addressing...
Please can we have your opinion.

13.  Sarah Vaughter    Saturday, March 2, 2019

Hi Annie,

Lipofullerenes are extremely stable (inert) molecules that can not be degraded in the human body. You'd be able to destroy them in a hot flame but not in a human body.

You have to understand that we're an ordinary European company, with our owners on the public record and that we're the largest manufacturer/vendor of this product already for six years. Many of our customers are very wealthy and we'd be sued by now if there even was any theoretical scientific basis that our product would be theoretically able to cause harm.

Furthermore, you're confusing several concepts. Carbon is an atom. C60 is a very special molecule made of sixty Carbon atoms. C60 is so soft that it's added to hyper-smooth lubricants and it can not be compared in any way to diamond, which is in every aspect the "opposite" of C60, when looking at its properties and the molecular structure. In diamond, carbon atoms form an extremely rigid, ultra-hard crystal with sharp edges and in C60 they form a perfectly smooth sphere.

You're also falsely assuming that a rat brain and a human brain are different, biologically. They're not - they're biologically identical. Biologically identical, chemically identical and structurally identical. And in rat brains, the effect of lipofullerenes was a doubling of lifespan.

No-one is addressing the "factors" you brought up, because these "factors" do not exist - they exist in your imagination only :-)

14.  Sarah Vaughter    Saturday, March 2, 2019

Another misunderstanding of yours is that C60 dissolved in water would be toxic. It is not, and this has been shown in the scientific literature, tested on tissue culture and animals.

What IS mildly toxic is when the C60 dissolves only PARTIALLY in the water, and nanoparticles of C60 clusters remain. Nanoparticles of C60 are NOT C60 molecules!

C60's affinity for lipids (fats) is orders of magnitude greater than that for water, so even if a C60 molecule would somehow detach from its lipid inside your body, it would nearly always re-attach to another lipid, since the only force strong enough to break the chemical bond with its lipid would be another lipid.

But even when it would somehow, due to metabolic mechanisms or some other hitherto unknown mechanism, get detached from its lipid chain and become a free-floating buckyball in water, then that comes with absolutely no toxicity whatsoever, since the only toxicity is of millions of C60 molecules clumped together. As soon at that free-floating C60 molecule would encounter a lipid, it would attach itself to that.

15.  Mie    Sunday, March 3, 2019

Hello, I am interested to learn more about C60 effect on methylation? Does silencing methylation mean it will be a bad thing for people with MTHFR mutations?

Best regards,


16.  Sarah Vaughter    Sunday, March 3, 2019

There is no evidence whatsoever that the product has the slightest effect on methylation.

17.  SCOTT BROWN    Thursday, March 14, 2019

Does it lump together or crystalize in the watery abdomen or watery bowels?

18.  Sarah Vaughter    Thursday, March 14, 2019

No, that is completely chemically impossible.