How does C60 work as an antioxidant?

The Buckyball molecule is an electron reservoir

Free radicals are molecules that have one or more electrons too few or too many, and they will damage any biological molecule they come in contact with. The Buckminsterfullerene C60 molecule can accept several electrons in case of a free radical with an electron surplus, and donate several electrons in case of a free radical with an electron deficit. C60 thus is an incredibly effective antioxidant, not in the least because it does not get degraded or unstable by accepting or donating electrons. The olive oil of the lipofullerene C60 binds the C60 into the cell layers, also those of the mitochondria, the energy factories in the cell. Hence the cells and mitochondria get an integrated nano-scale antioxidant system implanted into their cell walls. This is totally unique. No antioxidant supplement can be reused indefinitely. No antioxidant supplement can both accept and donate electrons, let alone multiple electrons. No antioxidant supplement sits for weeks in the lipid bilayers, exactly where it is needed the most. Except C60, which can do all these things.

One way C60 functions as an antioxidant, is to neutralize reactive Oxygen species (ROS) by accepting an electron from them. The unique aspect of C60 is that accepting an electron does not alter the structure of the C60 molecule, effectively infinitely recycling it. C60 can accept or donate many electrons (it works as an electron reservoir), so it is an incredibly powerful antioxidant in the cell walls (270 x better than vit. C, even disregarding the recycling effect!), constantly neutralizing damaging free radicals that reach the cells or mitochondria. How this works in detail has been explained by forum members of Longecity:


d4shing @

ROS is an unpaired electron. If it sticks to something else that absorbs and distributes the "extra" electron, it is neutralized.

See the below for how it works with compounds like c60:


niner @


C60 can also work as an antioxidant by donating excess electrons again to free radicals:


In short, the Buckminsterfullerene C60 molecule is a "superantioxidant", capable of neutralizing molecules that damage our cells and DNA by either accepting electrons or donating many electrons simultaneously, and not even be damaged by that process. These two properties are unique by themselves, but on top of that comes the fact that C60 connected with lipid chains (a lipofullerene) gets recycled in the cell so that the beneficial effects persist for weeks after having take a single large dose, or all day when taking a small dose.

1.  Oldkemist    Thursday, May 22, 2014

How long does c60 remain in the human body? Does it accumulate permanently? Or is it completely excreted overtime? If so how? How long is the process? If it accumulates, where does it accumulate? Have any of these questions been answered? Thanks.

2.  Sarah Vaughter    Thursday, May 22, 2014

"Officially", C60 is eliminated rather rapidly but there are strong suspicions that it may remain a very long time in the lipid bilayers of both cells and mitochondria and gets recycled into newly formed cell wall. This as a possible explanation why why rats lived nearly twice as long on just 24 doses.

3.  Brucey G    Saturday, August 23, 2014

Hi , I have a question or two. Firstly, what is the reason for increAsed libido? Is there an activation of testosterone or something because there are noticeable effects going into the 4th week? Another thing I noticed is I don't breathe as hard being in some form of activity. It's a very interesting product and trying to get some answers on what may be taking place in the body.

4.  mcurb    Friday, April 22, 2016

can it be used topically

5.  Sarah Vaughter    Friday, April 22, 2016

Yes, C60 is an ingredient in very expensive skin creams, but in very low concentrations. Not because of safety considerations but because C60 is approx. the same price as gold, gram-for-gram.

6.  jerrycollie    Tuesday, August 16, 2016

There has been some reports of reactions from sunlight; so check that out before you rub it on your skin; or you could test it on a small patch of skin and report back to us.

7.  jerrycollie    Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Being oil soluble, C60 accumulates in the oily center layer of cell membranes. Being a rather small round molecule, it can penetrate into the cell and then into the internal cell membranes of both the nucleus and the mitochondria. Most of its anti-oxidant work would be in the cell membrane of mitochondria; since mitochondria are the source of most ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species - free radicals). Mitochondria produce ROS as a side product of their electron chain reactions to produce ATP in the Krebs cycle. (Google Krebs cycle). Most of the cellular damage from ROS would occur in the DNA in the mitochondria, and to a lesser extent in the DNA of the nucleus (which can more easily repair DNA damage than can the mitochondria), although damage to fatty acids in the cell membranes is also a problem. C60, being an oily substance is excreted with bile through the bile duct. Apparently although an excess is excreted, much of it must last a long time in the body; since the experimenters seldom gave their rats a dose of C60. No scientists to my knowledge are currently repeating the rat experiment; probably because the government won't fund it. (Think of the cost to Social Security). There has been an effort to scrub information about the illegal human use of C60 from the Internet. It can only be used legally in animals. My 65 kilo rat has been on daily C60 for 2 years now with no toxicity. Three more years to go to reach the rat lifespans in the rat experiment, heh, heh! Cheers!

8.  rudi    Friday, December 2, 2016

On this topic, has C60 in olive oil tied some groups for itself? Because if pure C60 (not hydrated or similar) is inserted into human body it starts to deposit and becomes toxic.

9.  Sarah Vaughter    Monday, December 5, 2016

Correct, C60 in olive oil forms extremely strong bonds with the oil's lipids (and can do the same with cell lipids), the resulting highly stable macromolecule is called lipofullerene C60 and on the contrary, instead of being toxic, it strongly prevents oxidative damage (documented in the study as well) and appears to prevent the formation of tumors in rats as well as make rats live nearly twice as long, apparently preventing them to die from the customary cancer or pneumonia and instead the rats die when the Hayflick limit of their cells has been exhausted, dying of generalized old age instead of the illnesses of old age. One could say that lipofullerene C60 is the "least toxic substance on Earth" in the sense that all we know about it that it prolongs life, prevents disease and damage caused by toxic oxidants. Please read the study and the articles on this site where everything is explained in detail, documented with data and photographs (I refer to a study where they proved with rat obductions that C60 prevents oxidative toxin damage: Compare the appearance of control group's livers with the group that received C60 in olive oil study done in reputable university in France!) with sources to the scientific evidence published in reputable medical journals. Start by reading the main study, linked to in the left sidebar. Also read the sidebar itself and observe the picture of Lipofullerene C60 inside the cell wall's lipid bilayer. All of this is hard science, lab experiments on animals done by Ph.D's in Western university laboratories, not trying to sell any product, not affiliated with C60 sales in any way. No hype - only hard, peer-reviewed, published science with control groups and subsequent analysis of the dead animal's organs.

10.  Jennifer Morris    Monday, April 9, 2018

Hi, do you have any information showing what kinds of toxins C60 can remove from the body? For example, does it remove pesticides? Heavy metals? (If so, which ones) Or anything of the sort? Thank you!

11.  Sarah Vaughter    Monday, April 9, 2018

It removes neither heavy metals nor pesticides. It has been shows in rats to completely protect against otherwise lethal hepatotoxic chemicals, but that's irrelevant, except to show how potent an antioxidant it is.

What C60 does is slows down the aging process dramatically, and for some unknown reason protects rats from getting the illnesses of old age. Rats live nearly twice as long in good health and die suddenly of generalized old-age related organ failure, in their sleep, as it were, becoming as old as their max. genetic potential. Why exactly that happens is still a mystery, and how many extra years in good health a human being will enjoy is an even greater mystery, it will likely be more than zero but much less, percentage-wise, than rats.

12.  Sarah Vaughter    Tuesday, April 10, 2018

To clarify: The most dangerous toxins by far that a human is exposed to every day are ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species or "Free Radicals"). We know that these greatly contribute to aging and disease. C60 neutralizes these highly cell/DNA damaging chemicals extremely effectively, exactly in the body where ROS do the most damage. But ROS are not classified as "toxins", even though they cause cancer, destroy all cells in the body, etc. Just as a consequence of normal metabolism. For ex. when you derive your energy mainly from Glucose (as nearly all people on Earth do, unless they eat less than 50 grams of carbs/day) as opposed from Ketones, when you're on a "Paleolitic" diet, the "cavemen" diet, there is a much higher ROS production in the body. Our modern life comes at the price of much more ROS, and C60 neutralizes them.

13.  Lois Leatherman    Monday, November 12, 2018

I can't seem to find any information on how much to take: daily, weekly, etc.
And how much with each dose.1ml,5mls,? I have read how much you have given the rats, but can't find anything for humans.

14.  Sarah Vaughter    Monday, November 12, 2018

We provide this information absolutely everywhere. In the online store, on the label itself and in the article

15.  Kenneth    Saturday, November 24, 2018

I have your c60 & am seeing it work well in a couple ways. But I'm still concerned about some of the things I've guy said he developed cancer in his lymph nodes 8 months after starting c60. I'm all for the short term effects, but stories like that make me fear the long term. Is there anything we know that could debunk his claim, or explain why? I just couldn't imagine cancer developing with such a free radical scavenger running around inside.

16.  Sarah Vaughter    Saturday, November 24, 2018

When you gets cancer, eight months after eating a Chicken McNuggets, will you think that meal caused your cancer? Thousands of people are diagnosed with cancer every day. The only thing that has been lab-proven to prevent cancer in mammals is C60-EVOO. Why anyone would think that something with scientific backup of being anti-cancer would cause cancer is more than slightly paranoid I would say. We sold more than 100,000 bottles of this product for the past six years and this is the first time I hear that someone associates his cancer with C60-EVOO.

Now I do have to warn that I wouldn't be surprised if some of the competing products out there are less than healthy. Firstly: Most of the bandwagon-jumpers are real gangsters, claiming all kinds of miracles and lie about absolutely all aspects of the product. I have for ex. read on a forum that some of these people "boil" (= greatly overheat) their oil, in order to dissolve the C60 faster. Well, overheating vegetable oils cause high concentrations of carcinogenic chemicals to be produced.

Then there is the question of their source of C60. We source it from Solaris in Canada, produced in a Canadian university. But the cheapest C60 is made in China... Did this person take our C60?

17.  Erri    Friday, May 3, 2019

7. jerrycollie, you wrote on Tuesday, August 16, 2016 you had been testing C60 on a lab rat for a couple of years and had three more years to go till the test was complete. It is nearly three years later. How is the rat doing, now?

18.  Jill    Monday, May 27, 2019

Is there any anti-oxidant C60 cannot replace for its anti-oxidant action?

I'm wondering if I could ditch certain supplements, like high dose vitamin C, high dose beta-carotene, coQ10, alpha lipoic acid, carnosine, lutein, n-acetyl-cysteine.

Of course most of these have more functions than as an anti-oxidant, but I take them mostly for this and I need to be more selective.

19.  Sarah Vaughter    Monday, May 27, 2019

I am unable to answer this. The most important vitamin to supplement by far is vit. D3 - nearly everyone has a severe deficiency nowadays, greatly impairing the immune system. Due to a statistical error in the research used to establish RDAs for the vitamin, it should in fact be an order of magnitude higher than is currently recommended.

Vit. C becomes less and less important, the less carbs one ingests, since the entire process that turns carbs finally into ATP produces much more free radicals than turning ketones into ATP. Humans who eat solely carnivorous do not need to supplement vit. C - even when they don't touch fruit or vegetables.

So this is a highly complex topic and I don't think C60 is "replacing" any of the substances listed, since they aren't lipid-soluble superantioxidants but perform different biochemical functions.